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甘肃学位英语词汇学习的中的动词用法
2012-10-26 13:41     [ ]

动词的运用有学问

英语的动词必须在人称(person)、数目(number)、性别( gender)和格(case)这些方面和主语取得一致或互相呼应。

  在学生的英文作文中,动词与主语呼应上的错误,经常出现。

  下面这句话来自一个重要的公共部门的通告,里面也出现了动词与主语不一致的错误:

  ABC corporation, with its five main subsidiary companies, have taken over the operations of the previous electricity and gas departments of XXX with effect from 1 october 1995.

  这里的主语是“ABC corporation”,它是单数的,动词也应该是单数的 has,不是复数的 have,因此犯了动词与主语不对应的错误。

  既然这是个常见的错误,我们便要特别留意,并且记住下面这些指导原则:

  ●动词和主语在人称和数目上要一致,如:
   ① I am a writer.
   ② Helen is an editor.
   ③ They have a good future.
   ④ Dr Chen teaches us English.
   ⑤ Some old houses were burnt to the ground.
   ⑥ A deserted hut has already been demolished.

  ●两个或两个以上的单数主语由连接词“and”贯串起来时,便成了复数,动词也要复数,如:
   ⑦ David and Jason are colleagues.
   ⑧The driver and the passenger were involved in a quarrel.

  ●两个主语由“with”或“as well as ”等连接时,动词要和第一个主语的人称及数目呼应,如:
   ⑨ A woman with her puppies is walking along the lake.
   ⑩ The monitor as well as the other students has been scolded.

  ●两个主语由“either……or”或“neither……nor”连接时,动词要和第二个主语的人称及数目呼应,如:
   11. Either you or your friend is wrong.   12. Neither John nor his classmates have said it.

  ●集合名词(collective noun)当整体看待时,动词是单数,如:
   13. The steering committee is made up of five members.
   14. The jury has made its final decision.

  有时可以个别看待集合名词里的成员,这时这些成员合起来便变成复数,动词也是复数了,如:

  15. The committee have met once and they will meet again next month.

  16. Despite hours of deliberations, the jury were still divided in their opinions.
 

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