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2013年湖北学位英语考试重点:非谓语动词详解
2012-11-16 15:54     来源:31省市学位英语网  [ ]

学位英语语法重点—非谓语动词

核心提示:非谓语动词非谓语动词可谓是语法项目考查的重点,那么非谓语动词的考查都有哪些特点,解答时又应注意些什么呢?下面分析一下:1、非谓语动词考查特点1) 谓语动词与非谓语动词的判断对谓语动词与非谓语动词区别的考查主要集中在独立主格结构,如:All things ___ because of the snow...

非谓语动词

非谓语动词可谓是语法项目考查的重点,那么非谓语动词的考查都有哪些特点,解答时又应注意些什么呢?下面分析一下:

1、非谓语动词考查特点

1) 谓语动词与非谓语动词的判断

对谓语动词与非谓语动词区别的考查主要集中在独立主格结构,如:

All things ___ because of the snowstorm, many passengers could do nothing but take the train.

A. had been canceled B. have been canceled

C. were canceled D. having been canceled

四个选项中有三个是谓语动词,只有D是非谓语动词,只要同学们能判断出这里是非谓语动词做状语,则不用考虑时态的问题,答案自明。

2) 谓语动词后不定式与动名词的选择

谓语动词后接不定式还是接动名词也是三级语法测试中的一个题眼。如:

I don't mind ____ the decision as long as it is not too late.

A. you to delay making B. your delaying making

C. your delaying to make D. you delay to make

Had I remembered ____ the windows, the thief would not have got

in.

A. to close B. closing

C. to have closed D. having closed

Your hair wants ______ . You'd better have it done tomorrow.

A. cut B. to cut C. cutting D. being cut

这类题涉及三个方面:

谓语动词后应该接不定式还是动名词?

即可接不定式又可接动名词时,结构和意思上有何差别?

不定式与动名词用主动形式还是用被动形式?

3) 做定语的非谓语动词的选择

从近几年的考查情况来看,对做定语的非谓语动词的考查有两种情况:

(1)对一般概念的考查,而不是固定结构中的非谓语动词做定语。如:

The project ____ by the end of 2000, will expand the city's

telephone network to cover 1,000,000 users.

A. accomplished B. being accomplished

C. to be accomplished D. having been accomplished

If I correct someone, I will do it with so much good humor and

self-restraint as if I were the one ______.

A. to correct B. correcting

C. having been corrected D. being corrected

同学们只要掌握非谓语动词做定语的一般的规律,就可以判断①题答案为C,②题答案为D

(2)对固定结构的考查,如:

The professor could hardly find sufficient grounds _____ his

arguments in favor of the new theory.

A. to be based on B. to base on

C. which to base on D. on which to base

The pressure _____ causes Americans to be energetic, but it

also puts them under a constant emotional strain.

A. to compete B. competing

C. to be competed D. having competed

①题为不定式做定语的固定形式,答案为D,②题为某些特定名词的定语结构,答案为A。在英语中有些名词,如动词变来的名词,形容词变来的名词,以及means, way, time, moment, reason等要求其后用不定式做定语,不定式没有体的变化。

4) 做状语的非谓语动词的选择

做状语的非谓语动词主要考查其各种形式的选择,如:

______ the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would

fall off the edge of the earth.

A. Having believed B. Believing

C. Believed D. Being Believed

_______ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at

least a master's degree.

A. To become B. Become C. One becomes D. On becoming

Realizing that he hadn't enough money and ____ to borrow from

his father, he decided to sell his watch.

A. not wanted B. no to want C. not wanting D. wanting not

___ it or not, his discovery has created a stir in scientific

circles.

A. Believe B. To believe C. Believing D. Believed

从以上各题来看,考查的侧重点有:

(1)状语类别的判断

不同的状语对非谓语动词的要求不同,目的状语要求用不定式,如②。

(2)非谓语动词与句子属于之间的逻辑关系

根据主谓关系或动宾关系的不同来确定用现在分词还是用过去分词。

(3)非谓语动词的否定形式

not否定非谓语动词时置于非谓语动词之前,如③。

(4) 独立成分

有些非谓语动词的使用不受与句子主语关系的限制,称为独立成分,这类成 分只记忆即可。如:

generally speaking, judging from..., to tell the truth..., 等。

5) 做补足语的非谓语动词的选择

做宾语补足语的非谓语动词受谓语动词的限制,不同动词后的宾语补足语形式要求不同。近几年对各类宾补都有考查。如:

They are going to have the service man ____ an electric fan in

the office tomorrow.

A. install B. to install C. to be installed D. installed

After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory

dispute ______.

A. being settled B. to be settled

C. had settled D. as settled

You will see this product ____ wherever you go.

A. to be advertised B. advertised

C. advertise D. advertising

His remarks left me _____ about his real purpose.

A. wondered B. wonder C. to wonder D. wondering

When I caught him ______ me I stopped buying things there and

started dealing with another shop.

A. cheating B. cheat C. to cheat D. to be cheating

The sale usually takes place outside the house, with the

audience _____ on benches, chairs or boxes.

A. having seated B. seating C. seated D. having been seated

考查涉及到

感官动词后的宾语补足语,如③。

have, make, let, leave等特殊单词后的宾语补足语。

regard类后面的宾语补足语

with独立分句后面的

常用动词后面的宾语补足语。

6) 做表语的非谓语动词的选择

表语的考查多侧重于分词做表语形式的选择,很少有动名词的用法的考查,虽然选项中有不定式作为干扰项,只要能看出是做表语的也就不用考虑。如:

The house was very quiet, ____ as it was on the side of the

mountain.

A. isolated B. isolating

C. being isolated D. having been isolated

These surveys indicate that many crimes go _____ by the police,

mainly because not all victims report them.

A. unrecorded B. to be unrecorded

C. unrecording D. to have been unrecorded

分词做表语可以做系动词be的表语,也可以做其它系动词的表语,如go, feel,seem, look, remain等等。这些系动词后非谓语动词的饿用法规则是相同的。

7) to作为介词与作为不定式符号的选择

to可以是介词,也可以用来引导不定式,三级考试中对种类用法的考查也比较多。如:

I have no objection _______ your story again.

A. to hear B. to hearing

C. to having heard D. to have heard

The traditional approach ____ with complex problems is to break

down into smaller, more easily managed problems.

A. to dealing B. in dealing C. dealing D. to deal

The man in the corner confessed to _____ a lie to the manager

of the company. (1997.6)

A. have told B. be told C. being told D. having told

这类考题的考查方式有两种,一是四个选项中有两个相对的选项to do something to doing something,这时考查的自然是to的性质;另一种是to在题干中,如③。

8) 分词前连词的使用

分词前连词的使用是为了使分词的作用更加明了,使考生更加准确地理解试题。考查有两种情况

(1)根据连词选择适当的分词形式

Michael used to look hurt and surprised when ______.

A. scolding B. to scold C. having scolded D. scolded

when的使用说明非谓语动词做时间状语,答案不可能是B,从scold与句子主语间的逻辑关系来看,应该是动宾关系,答案应该是D

(2)根据状语的功能选择不同的连词

Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of

patient do not take drugs ___ directed.

A. like B. so C. which D. as

由上下文的意思可以看出,分词所做的是方式状语,连词应该是as

9) 非谓语动词的体

非谓语动词中分词的体有完成体和进行体,即having done, having been donebeing done,完成体只用于做状语的场合,而进行体可以用于做定语和做补足语。

动名词的体也有having done, having been done being done的结构主要用于做主语和宾语的场合。

不定式的体有to be doing to have done,主要用于pretend, happen, seem, appear, be said to等结构中。如:

The man in the corner confessed to _____ a lie to the manager

of the company.

A. have told B. be told C. being told D. having told

having told在句中做介词宾语,表示动作发生在谓语动词之前。

I'd rather read than watch television; the programs seem ____

all the time.

A. to get worse B. to be getting worse

C. to have got worse D. getting worse

all the time的使用可以推断get worse是一个渐变过程,所以用不定式的进行体。

The speech _____ a lively discussion started.

A. being delivered B. was delivered

C. be delivered D. having been delivered

该结构属于独立主格结构做时间状语,状语分词所表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前,所以应该用完成体,答案为D

学位英语语法重点—非谓语动词2

核心提示:非谓语动词 1.非谓语动词用作主语2.非谓语动词用作宾语3.非谓语动词用作定语4.非谓语动词用作状语5.非谓语动词用作宾补 非谓语动词为英语自学考试中出题最多的题型,重点考查不定式,分词和动名词的句法功能。下面就非谓语动词的用法作一简要概述。【用作主语】非谓语动词能用作主...

非谓语动词

1.非谓语动词用作主语

2.非谓语动词用作宾语

3.非谓语动词用作定语

4.非谓语动词用作状语

5.非谓语动词用作宾补

 非谓语动词为英语自学考试中出题最多的题型,重点考查不定式,分词和动名词

的句法功能。下面就非谓语动词的用法作一简要概述。

【用作主语】

非谓语动词能用作主语的只有不定式和动名词,它们在这一用法上略有区别:

1. 表示抽象的概念时,可用不定式或动名词作主语;表示个别的,具体的动作或

表示将来的意思时,只能用不定式作主语。

To solve the problem is out of question. 解决这个问题不在话下。

(表示个别,具体的动作,不用动名词短语solving the problem作主语。)

We can not accept this idea. To accept it means to give up our stand.

我们不能接受这个观点,接受它就意味着放弃了我们自己的立场。

To accept表示一种将来的含义。)

2. 1)不定式短语和动名词短语作主语时常用形式主语it引导。有时两者可互用。

It is not easy to master (mastering) a foreign language. 掌握一门外语不容易。

2)但在It is no good/ use / help/ point/ sense , There is no 等句式中,一般用动名词,不可用不定式代替。

There is no use crying over spilt milk. 牛奶撒了,哭也没有用。

It is no good writing to him; he never answers letters.

给他写信一点用也没有,他从不回信。

Is there any good trying to explain? 解释会有用吗

3)不定式的复合结构常用“It + be + adj. + for + 代词宾格+不定式”的句式,其中不定式是真正的主语,代词宾格为它的逻辑主语。

It is necessary for us to do some more practice. 我们必须多做一些练习。

That is really kind of you to say so. 你这样说真是太好了。

(在口语中,如果形容词和逻辑主语的关系很密切,常用of代替for,组成习惯用法。)

【用作宾语】

不定式和动名词均可用作宾语。

1. 一些动词要求用不定式作宾语,常见的有:afford, agree, ask, want, hope, decide, like, wish, try, learn, except, prefer, begin, help, offer, start, fail, plan, promise, refuse, 等动词。

I can not afford to buy a new car. 我买不起一辆新车。

2. 一些动词要求用动名词作宾语,常见的有:enjoy, finish, avoid, excuse, mind, suggest, practise, admit, appreciate, consider, deny, quit, risk, stop, miss, complete, escape, mention, favor等动词。

He still did not admit stealing the diamond. 他仍然不承认偷了钻石。

You should practise speaking English as much as possible. 你应该多练习说英语。

3. 有些动词后既可跟不定式又可跟动名词作宾语。这有几种情况:

1)如like, begin, start, want, love, hate, attempt, continue, intend, prefer等动词,跟不定式或动名词作宾语意思差别不太大。一般说来,用动名词表示的是抽象的,时间不确定的动作;用不定式表示的是具体的,确切的动作。

I like walking to school. 我喜欢步行去上学。(表示一个总体抽象的概念)

 ② I would like to walk to school today. 我今天想步行去上学。(表示一个具体的,确切的动作)

2) 有些动词,如stop, remember, forget, try, propose, mean, regret等,后接不定式和接动名词意思不同。

stop to do 停下来去做某事

stop doing 停止做某事

remember/forget to do 记得/忘了要去做某事

remember/forget doing 记得/忘了做过某事

try to do 努力,企图

try doing 试一试某种方法

regret to do 对尚未做或正在做的事表示遗憾

regret doing 对做过的事表示后悔

mean to do 打算做某事

mean doing 意味着

propose to do 打算做某事

propose doing 建议做某事

I do not remember ever meeting that man. 我不记得见过那个人。

Please remember to phone me when you get there. 请到那儿之后给我打电话。

I propose resting for half an hour. 我建议休息半个小时。

I propose to go to London this summer. 我打算夏天到伦敦去。

I regret to tell you that you lost the game. 我非常遗憾地通知你,你输了。

3) 有些动词,如advise, admit, allow, authorize, bear, consider, like,encourage, forbid, intend, permit, recommend等,可同时用于“主语 + 动词 + 动名词”和“主语 + 动词 + 宾语 + 不定式”的结构中。

They encouraged learning English by radio. 他们鼓励通过收音机学英语。

They encouraged me to learn English by radio. 他们鼓励我通过收音机学英语。

She recommended visiting the Great Wall. 她推荐游览长城。

She recommended us to visit the Great Wall. 她建议我们游览长城。

4need, want, require, deserve, demand, bear等动词后,跟不定式时,用被动形式表示被动含义;跟动名词时,用主动形式表被动含义。注意:此时主语多为物。

This book deserves mentioning / to be mentioned. 这本书值得一提。

The room needs cleaning / to be cleaned. 屋子需要打扫了。

【用作定语】

1. 不定式,动名词和分词都可作定语。

1)不定式作定语,一般后置,和它所修饰的名词在逻辑上存在着动宾关系。因此,如不定式为不及物动词,需带相应的介词。

The subject I am going to write about is rather interesting.

我正要写的这个题目十分有意思。(write 后需加上介词about

2)动名词作定语相当于名词作定语,一般前置。

a swimming pool 游泳池

reading material 阅读材料

3)分词作定语相当于形容词作定语,单个分词作定语一般前置(但单个过去分词

常后置),分词短语总是后置。

Matter is the name given to everything which has weight and occupies space.

物质是一种名称,用来指任何一个有重量占空间的东西。

2. 分词与不定式作定语的区别:

1)现在分词作定语表示事实,正在进行之事;不定式作定语表示目的,忠告,将

要做之事。

2)分词作定语时,单个分词作定语一般前置(但单个过去分词常后置),分词短

语总是后置;不定式作定语,一般后置,和它所修饰的名词在逻辑上存在着动宾关系

或主谓关系。

The next train to arrive was from New York.下一辆到站的列车是从纽约开来的。(trainarrive构成主谓关系;to arrive是一种将来的动作。)

I need a pen to write with. 我需要一只笔写字。(penwrite构成主谓关系;介词with不可省。)

He has too many things to do. 他要做的事情太多了。(dothings构成动

宾关系;to do是一种将来的动作。)

A little child learning to walk often falls. 学走路的孩子常常摔跤。(learning to walk表示一种正在进行之动作。)

He wants his egg fried. 他要吃煎鸡蛋。(fried为过去分词,后置,有一种被动的含义,等于to be fried)

【用作状语】

1. 不定式和分词都可用作状语。

1) 不定式作状语常用作目的状语,原因状语,结果状语,表示一种目的,结果,

或者表示未来的动作。分词作状语,可表示时间,原因,伴随状况,让步,条件,方式等。

2) 现在分词作状语表示一种主动。过去分词作状语表示被动,并常用来说明动作发生的背景或情况。

To become a teacher, it is necessary to have at least a master's degree. 要成为一名教师,至少必须得有硕士学位。(不定式作目的状语,并表示一种未来的动作)

Arriving home at daybreak, he felt deadly tired. 他天亮了才到家,都快累死了。(现在分词作时间状语)

We jumped with joy to hear the news. 听到那个消息,我们高兴得跳起来。(不定式作原因状语)

We jumped with joy on hearing the news. 听到那个消息,我们高兴得跳起来。(现在分词作原因状语)

Absorbed in the work, he neglected food and sleep. 他专心致志于这项工作到了废寝忘食的地步。(过去分词作伴随状语,并表示被动。)

Caught in the rain, he was wet to the skin. 他被雨淋得湿透了。(用过去分词只强调原因,无时间概念。)

Having caught in the rain, he was wet to the skin. 他被雨淋得湿透了。(用现在分词完成式强调分词动作发生在主句动作之前。)

Being caught in the rain, he was wet to the skin. 他被雨淋得湿透了。(用现在分词被动式强调分词动作与主句动作同时发生。)

2. 分词独立主格结构

一般分词结构作状语时,其逻辑主语就是主句的主语;而独立主格结构作状语的条件就是其逻辑主语与主句的主语不一致。分词独立主格结构的作用相当于分词短语作状语,表示原因,时间,让步,伴随状况等。

The work done, we felt relieved. 工作做完了,我们感到很轻松。

Weather permitting, we'll go for a picnic. 要是天气允许的话,我们就去野餐。

The students having done all the exercises, the teacher went on to explain the text.学生做完所有的练习后,老师接着讲课文。

【用作宾补】

不定式和分词都可用作宾语补足语。

1. 不定式作宾语补足语表示动作的全过程,且动作已完成。有时还可表示一般事

实。现在分词作宾语补足语表示主动,动作正在进行;过去分词作宾语补足语表示被

动,以及动作的完成。

When I caught him cheating me, I stopped buying things there. 当我抓到他欺骗我时,我就不再在那儿买东西了。

Don't get your schedule changed; stay with us. 不要改变你的安排,跟我们在一起吧。

You can count on us to give you full support. 你放心,我们会全力支持你的。

2. 一些动词,如have, make, let; see, watch, observe, perceive, notice; feel, smell, hear, listen to等,要求用不带to的动词不定式作宾补。

We saw him go out. 我们看见他出去了。

Suddenly we felt the atmosphere grow tense. 突然我们感到气氛紧张了起来。

但这种句子如果变为被动结构,to就必须要恢复。

They were made to work day and night. 他们被迫日夜工作。

3. 动词不定式带to与不带to的小结。

1)在had better, would rather, would sooner, would just as soon,

might(just) as well, can not but等搭配之后,动词不定式不带to

They cannot but accept his idea. 他们不得不接受他的主意。

I'd rather not have classes in the morning. 我不愿意上午上课。

2) 在介词except, but之后,如果其前有动词do的某种形式,不定式一般不带to;反之则须带to

There's nothing to do except wait for another train. 没有办法只有等下一列火车了。

There's nothing else to do but send for the doctor. 别无它法只好请大夫了。

Nothing could save the company but to reform. 只有改革才能挽救这个公司。

3)连词rather than, sooner than置于句首时,其后的不定式不带to

Rather than cause trouble, I am going to forget the whole affair. 我想把这事完全忘掉,而不是若麻烦。

4)在Why, Why not结构中,紧接其后的动词不定式总是不带to

Why argue with him? 为什么跟他争吵呢?

Why not send her some flowers? 为什么不送她一些花呢?

语法练习

 1. He turned round only ____ that his purse was stolen. B

 A. see   B. to see  C. saw  D. seeing

 分析

B

译文:他转身发现钱包被人偷走了。

解:only后接不定式,表示意料不到的结果,作句子的结果状语。

 2. The man wore dark glasses to avoid ____ . D

 A. to recognize   B. to be recognized   C. recognizing  D. being recognized

分析

D

译文:那个男人戴着墨镜,以免被认出来。

解:avoid要求动名词作宾语。根据句子意思,the man是动作recognize的承受者,故应为被动语态。

 3.Do you remember ____ to Professor Smith during your last visit? C

 A. to be introduced   B. having introduced   C. being introduced   D. to have introduced

 分析

C

译文:你还记不记得你上一次来访的时候被介绍给史密斯先生?

解:remember后接动词不定式一般式作宾语表示即将发生的动作;接动名词作宾语表示已经发生的动作。从本句的时间状语during your last visit可知这是一个已经发生了的动作。动词introduce和听话人you之间为动宾关系,故应为被动语态。

 4.____ enough time and funds, scientists would have been able to discover more in this field. A

 A. Given   B. Giving    C.To give   D.Gives

 分析

A

译文:如果给予足够的时间和资金,科学家们会在这个领域发现更多。

解:因为非谓语动词的逻辑主语是scientists,它是give动作的承受者,因此应用过去分词。  

 5.When the bell sounded, the boys rushed out of the classroom, each ____ a number of new books under his arm.. C

 A. having carried   B.carries   C. carrying   D.to carry

 分析

C

译文:铃响了,一群男孩子们冲出了教室,每个人的胳臂下都夹着一些新书。

解:分词独立结构表示陪衬动作,作伴随状语。由于carryrush两个动作同时发生,故用一般时态。  

 6. There was so much noise, the speaker could not make himself ____ . C

 A. hearing  B. to hear    C. heard  D. being heard

 分析

C

译文:噪音是如此之大以至于根本听不清演讲者在说什么。

解:感官动词和祈使动词不但可以跟不带to的不定式作宾补,还可以跟分词作宾补。不同的是,用不带to的不定式作宾补表示补语的动作已完成;用现在分词作宾补表示补语的动作正在进行;用过去分词作宾补表示补语的动作是被动的。在本句中,祈使动词make用过去分词heard作宾补,表示被动的概念(“被听见”)。  

 7. I've got a loaf of bread; now I'm looking for a knife ____ it with. B

 A. cut  B. to cut    C cutting  D. being cut

 分析

B

译文:我有一条面包,我现在正在找一把刀来切它。

解:动词不定式短语to cut作状语,表示目的。

 8. They consider it possible ____ the plan ahead of time. D

 A. fulfill  B. fulfilled   C. fulfilling  D. to fulfill

 分析

D

译文:他们认为提前完成这个计划是有可能的。

解:consider, find, think, feel, make等动词常以不定式或动名词作宾语,若含有宾补(常为形容词或名词),可用it作形式宾语,把真正的宾语置于宾补之后。在本句中,to fulfill the plan ahead of time为其真正的宾语。用不定式作宾语一种将来的含义,故选D

 9. While ____ the conference here, she came across an old friend at a restaurant. A

 A. attending  B. attends    C. to attend   D. being attended

 分析

A

译文:在这儿开会的时候,她在一家餐馆里碰见了一位老朋友。

解:不定式作状语表示目的,结果;分词作状语可表示时间,原因,伴随状况,让步,条件,方式等。在本句中,主句动作在分句动作进行过程中发生,分词用一般时,前面常有while, when等时间连词。

 10.Many of the world's great novels are reported ____ films last year. D

 A.to be made into   B. being made into    C.to have made into   D.to have been made into

 分析

D

译文:据报道,去年很多世界著名的小说都被拍成了电影。

解:不定式的逻辑主语novels是不定式动作的对象,故不定式要用被动语态;又因不定式的动作先于主句谓语are reported的动作,故用完成时。

 11.The house was very quiet, ____ as it was on the side of a mountain. A

 A.isolated  B. isolating   C.being isolated   D.having being isolated

 分析

A

译文:这所房子由于孤零零地位于山边,所以非常安静。

解:分词作原因状语,其逻辑主语为house,因而用过去分词表示被动。分析上下文,可知过去分词短语在这儿只表示一种事实或状态,所以不必用进行时或完成时。

12.All things ____, the planned trip will have to be called off. C

 A.considering  B. be considered     C.considered  D.having considered

分析

C

译文:考虑到方方面面,计划好的这次旅行只好取消了。

解:分词独立句作状语。在状语中,逻辑主语all things为受事者,因而用过去分词表示被动。分词的动作和主句的动作没有先后关系,所以不需要用完成时态。

13.As early as 1674, Ohio made a decision that free, tax-supported schools must be established in every town ____ 50 households or more. B

  A. to have  B. having   C. to have had   D. having had

分析

B

译文:早在1647年俄亥俄州就做出决定:在每个有50户以上居民的城镇中必须设立免费的,由税收支持的学校。

解:本题主要考查现在分词与不定式作定语的区别。现在分词作定语表示事实,正在进行;不定式作定语表示目的,忠告,将要做之事。这里讲述的是一种事实,故不能用不定式,也不必用分词完成时。

 14.After the Arab states won independence, great emphasis was laid on expanding education, with girls as well as boys ____ to go to school. C

 A.to be encouraged   B. been encouraged   

 C.being encouraged  D.be encouraged

 分析

C

译文:译文:阿拉伯国家独立以后,特别重视发展教育,不但鼓励男孩子上学,也鼓励女孩子上学。

解:with引导的独立主格结构。with可与介词短语,不定式,分词短语,形容词等构成独立结构作状语。不定式作独立结构与分词作独立结构的不同在于,不定式表示目的或将来的动作,分词表示状况或事实。根据上下文,可知C)比A)更恰当。

 15.The speech ____, a lively discussion started. D

 A. being delivered   B. was delivered   C.be delivered   D.having been delivered

 分析

D

译文:讲话结束之后,开始了生动活泼的讨论。

解:独立主格结构题。由于deliver的逻辑主语不是discussion而是speech,且为“动宾关系”,故需要用被动语态;又由于deliver的动作发生在主语动作started之前,故需要用完成时。

 

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