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2014年江西学位英语试题:阅读理解
2014-05-16 12:53     来源:31省市学位英语网  [ ]

 

Directions: There are three passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished .statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.

 

Passage 1

   What exactly is a lie? Is it anything we say which we know is untrue? Or is it something more than that? For example, suppose a friend wants to borrow some money from you. You say "I wish I could help you but I'm short of money myself." In fact, you are not short of money but your friend is in the habit of not paying his debt and you don't want to hurt his feelings by reminding him of this. Is this rally a lie?

   Professor Jerald Jellison of the University of Southern California has made a scientific study of lying.  (76)According to him, women are better liars than men, particularly when telling a "white lie", such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really thinks it looks awful. However, this is only one side of the story. Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more serious lies, such as making a promise which they have no intension of fulfilling. This is the kind of lie politicians and businessmen are supposed to be particularly skilled at: the lie from which the liar hopes to profit or gain in some way.

     Research has also been done into the way people's behavior changes in a number of small, apparently unimportant ways when they lie. It has been found that if they are sitting down at the time, they tend to move about in their chairs more than usual.  To the trained observer they are saying "I wish I were somewhere else now." They also tend to touch certain parts of the face more often, in particular the nose: One explanation of this may be that lying causes a slight increase in blood pressure. The tip of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressures make it itch.

   Another gesture which gives liars away is what the writer Desmond Morris in his book Manwatching calls "the mouth cover". (77) He says there are several typical forms of this, such as covering part of the mouth with the fingers, touching the upper—lip or putting a finger of the hand at one side of the mouth. Such a gesture can be understood as an unconscious attempt on the part of the liar to stop himself or herself from lying.

   Of course, such gestures as rubbing the nose or covering the mouth, or moving about in a chair cannot be taken as proof that the speaker is lying. They simply tend to occur more frequently in this situation. It is not one gesture alone that gives the liar away but a whole number of things, and in particular the context in which the lie is told.

1. Researchers find that when a person tells lies ______

A his blood pressure increases measurably

B he looks very serious

C he tends to make some small changes in his behavior

D he uses his unconscious mind

答案:C

本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于第三段第一句:Research has also been done into the way peoples behavior changes in a number of smallapparently unimportant ways when they lie同样有研究侧重于当人们说谎时他们行为的一些细小的,明显的不重要的改变,很容易看出答案C与该句符合。

2. The tone of this passage tells us that the writer ______

A hates to lie

B enjoys lying

C often tells a lie

D tries to analyze lying

答案:D

此题考查的是考生对整篇短文的观点的理解。文章首先讲到男人女人说谎的不同,而后又分析说谎时人们行为方式的变化等等,所以说文章是在分析说谎。其他选项错误。

3. According to the passage, a "white lie" seems to be a lie ______

A that other people believe

B that other people don't believe

C told in order to avoid offending someone

D told in order to take advantage of someone

答案:C

本题考查的是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章第一、二段。第一段中“you don't want to hurt his feelings by re minding him of this.”,第二段又用举例的方法解释了white lie 的含义。这个例子就是"such as when a woman at a party tells an other woman that she likes her dress when she really think it looks awful.”

4. One reason people sometimes rub their noses when they lie is that______

A they wish they were somewhere else

B the nose is sensitive to physical changes caused by lying

C they want to cover their mouths

D they are trying to stop themselves from telling lies

 

答案:B

本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于第三段最后一句:The tip of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressures make it itch.鼻尖对这样的变化非常敏感,血压的增加使得它发痒,即与B选项吻合。

5. Research suggests that women ______

A are better at telling less serious lies than men are

B generally lie far more than men do

C lie at parties more often than men do

D often make promises they intend to break

答案:A

本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应文章的第二段。该段比较了男人和女人说谎的不同,而且男人更可能说更严重的谎言。参见第二段中句子“Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more serious lies,……”这里的比较就是与前一句中女人撒谎相比。

 

Passage 2

   Without proper planning, tourism can cause problems. For ex ample, too many tourists can crowd public places that are also enjoyed by the inhabitants of a country. If tourists create too much traffic, the inhabitants become annoyed and unhappy. They begin to dislike tourists and to treat them impolitely. They forget how much tourism can help the country's economy. It is important to think a bout the people of a destination country and how tourism affects them. Tourism should help a country keep the customs and beauty that attract tourists. Tourism should also advance the well—being of local inhabitants.

   Too much tourism can be a problem. If tourism grows too quickly, people must leave other jobs to work in the tourism industry. This means that other parts of the country's economy can suffer.

   On the other hand, if there is not enough tourism, people can lose jobs. Businesses can also lose money. It costs a great deal of money to build large hotels, airports, air terminals, first—ass roads, and other support facilities needed by tourist attractions. For example, a major international—ass tourism hotel can cost as much as 50 thousand dollars per room to build. If this room is not used most of the time, the owners of the hotel lose money.

   Building a hotel is just a beginning. There must be many sup- port facilities as well. , including roads to get to the hotel, electricity, sewers to handle waste, and water. All of these support facilities cost money. If they are not used because there are not enough tourists, jobs and money are lost.

6. It's good for local people that they are well aware that tourism will ______

A use up a large amount of water

B weaken their economy

C help establish their traditions

D help improve their life

答案:D

本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章第一段最后一句:Tourism should also advance the wellbeing of local inhabitants.易看出答案为D项。

7. Too much tourism can cause all these problems EXCEPT ______

A a bad impact on other industries

B a change of tourists' customs

C overcrowdness of places of interest

D pressure on traffic

答案:B

本题考查的是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章第一和第二段,其中列举了过多的观光旅游带来的问题。可以找出对应选项ACD,只有答案B在文中没有对应部分。

8. Which of the following has most probably been discussed in' the former paragraph of this passage? 

A it is extremely important to develop tourism.

B Building roads and hotels is essential

C Support facilities are highly necessary

D Planning is of great importance to tourism

答案:D

本题考查考生对文章结构的理解。文章第一段就说如果不恰当的设定计划,旅游业就会带来很多问题。之后介绍了各种可能的事情。由此独断出本文之前的部分是讨论了设定计划的重要性。

9. The word "handle" in the last paragraph most probably means______

A carry away

B pick up

C get in

D take down

答案:A

本题考查的是考生对具体词汇的把握,sewer是排水沟的意思。应此handle在这里含义与carry away相同。

10. Not enough tourism can lead to ______

A an increase of unemployment

B a decrease in tourist attractions

C the higher cost of support facilities

D a rise in price and a fall in pay

答案:A

本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章在第三段首句。从文章结构来说,第一段说明过多的旅游带来的问题;第二段是过渡段;第三段说没有旅游业的问题。

 

Passage 3

   Trees are useful to man in three very important ways: they provide him wood and other products, they give him shaded and they help to prevent drought and floods.

   Unfortunately, in many parts of the world, man has not realized that the third of these services is the most important. In his eagerness to draw quick profit from the trees, he has cut them down in large numbers, only to find that with them he has lost the friends he had.

   Two thousand years ago, a rich and powerful country cut down its trees to build warships, with which to gain itself an empire. It gained the empire but, without its trees, its soil became bare and poor. When the empire fell to pieces, the home country found itself faced by floods and starvation.

   Even where a government realizes the importance of a plentiful supply of trees, it is difficult sometimes to make the people realize this. They cut down the trees but are too careless to plant and look after new trees. (80)So, unless the government has a good system of control, or can educate the people, the forests slowly disappear.

   This does not only mean that there will be fewer trees. The results are even more serious: for where there are trees, their roots break the soil up, allowing the rain to sink in, and also bind the soil. This prevents the soil from being washed away. But where there are on trees, the rain falls on hard ground and flows away on the surface, and this causes floods and the rain carries away the rich topsoil in which crops grow. When all the topsoil is gone, nothing remains but worthless desert.

11. When there is a heavy rain, trees can help to prevent floods, as they can ______

A keep rain from falling down to soft ground

B cause the soil to allow rainwater to sink in

C make the topsoil stick together

D prevent the soil from being washed away

答案:B

本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章参见最后一段第二句。

12. It's very pitiful that ______

A man has cut down too many trees

B man is eager to profit from trees

C man hasn't realizes the importance of trees to him

D man hasn't found cut that he has lost all trees

答案:C

本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章第二段首句Unfortunatelyin many parts of the worldman has not realized that the thirdthese services is the most importantvery pitifulUnfortunately相对应。

13. Two thousand years ago, a rich and powerful country met with floods and starvation because of ______

A the soil of the country became barren

B its empire fell

C it cut too many trees down

D the conquered land within its empire was poor and barren

答案:C

本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章第三段。这段中讲述了一个国家过渡砍树所造成的后果。

14. According to the passage, trees are useful to man mainly in three ways, the most important of which is that they can ______

A keep him from the hot sunshine

B prevent him from floods

C make him draw quick profit from them

D help him to keep from the attack of drought and floods

答案:D

题考查的是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章第二段首句,…man has not realized that the third of these services is the most important,答案D项刚好与之符合。

15. Sooner or later the forests will disappear ______

A if people don't stop cutting trees

B unless a country has a plenty supply of trees

C unless all people the importance of planting trees and the government has good system of control.

D if man doesn't stop cutting trees carelessly

答案:C

本题考查的也是考生对细节的把握,答案对应于文章第四段最后一句。

 

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