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    您现在的位置:31省市学位英语网>>江西>>备考经验
2014年江西学位英语阅读理解训练三
2014-05-16 13:02     来源:31省市学位英语网  [ ]

Directions: There are three passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice.

Passage 1
   When we see well, we do not think about our eyes very often. (76) It is only when we cannot See perfectly that we realize how important our eyes are.
   People who are near-sighted can only see things that are very close to their eyes. Everything else seems blurry (unclear). Many people who do a lot of work, such as writing, reading and sewing, become near-sighted.
   People who are far-sighted suffer from just the opposite problem. They can see things that are far away, but they have difficulty in reading a book unless they hold it at arm's length, lf they want to do much reading, they must get glasses, too.
   Other people do not see clearly because their eyes are not exactly the right shape. They have what is called astigmatism (
散光). This, too, can be corrected by glasses. Some people's eyes become cloudy because of cataracts(白内障).  Long ago these people often became blind. Now, however, it is possible to operate on the cataracts and remove them.
    Having two good eyes is important for judging distances. Each eye sees things from a slightly different angle (
角度). (77) To prove this to yourself, look at an object out of one eye; then look at the same object out of your other eye. You will find the object's relation to the background and other things around it has changed. The difference between these two different eye views helps us to judge how far away an object is. People who have only one eye cannot judge distance as people with two eyes can.

1. 

The underlined words "suffer from" in the third paragraph probably means ______ .

A experience

B imagine

C feel pain

D are affected with

 

答案:D

词汇题。根据句意:有远视的人会suffer from相反的问题。”experience意为经验imagine意为想像 feel pain意为感觉痛苦are affected with意为受影响,受侵害。选项D最贴切。

2. 

We should take good care of our eyes ______ .

A only when we can see well

B only when we cannot see perfectly

C even if we can see well

D only when we realize how important our eyes are

 

答案:C

主旨题。问题中提到我们应该爱护眼睛,而文章开头从反面提到当人们的眼睛很好的时候不会注意保护眼睛。后面几段紧接着说到眼睛问题,最后一段没总结重要性,所以纵览全文,应该得出结论CABD说法太绝对应该排除。

3. 

When things far away seem indistinct (模糊不清), one is probably ______ .

A near-sighted

B far-sighted

C astigmatic

D suffering from cataracts

 

答案:A

细节题。第二段开始提到:“People who are near-sighted can only see things that are very clese to their eyes Everything else seems blurry(=unclear)近视的人只能看清近处的事物,其他一片模糊。问题从反向提问,看不清远处事物的也就是近视眼。因此答案为A

4. 

Having two eyes instead of one is particularly useful for ______ .

A seeing at night

B seeing objects far away

C looking over a wide area

D judging distances

 

答案:D

细节题。第五段的第一句话和最后一句话给出了答案:“Having two good eyes is important for judging distances“People who have only one eye can not judge distance as people with two eyes can由此可以得出用两只眼睛代替一只眼睛最关键的是帮助人们判断距离。

5. 

People who suffer from astigmatism have ______ .

A one eye bigger than the other

B eyes that are not exactly the right shape

C a difficulty that can be corrected by an operation

D an eye difficulty that cannot be corrected by glasses

 

答案:B

细节题。第四段的首句说明了散光的定义:“Other people do not see clearly because their eyes are not exactly the right shapeThey have what is called astigmatism(散光)由此可知B为正确答案。

Passage 2
   When one looks back upon the fifteen hundred years that are the life span of the English language, he should be able to notice a number of significant truths. The history of our language has always been a history of constant change--at times a slow, almost imperceptible change, at other times a violent collision between two languages. Our language has always been a living, growing organism, it has never been static. Another significant truth that emerges from such a study is that language at all times has been the possession not of one class or group but of many. At one extreme it has been the property of the common, ignorant folk, who have used it in the daily business of their living, much as they have used their animals or the kitchen pots and pans. At the other extreme it has been the treasure of those who have respected it as an instrument and a sign of civilization, and who have struggled by writing it down to give it some permanence, order, dignity, and if possible, a little beauty.
   As we consider our changing language, we should note here two developments that are of special and immediate importance to us. One is that since the time of the Anglo-Saxons there has been an almost complete reversal of the different devices for showing the relationship of words in a sentence. Anglo-Saxon (old English ) was a language of many inflections. Modem English has few inflections. (78) We must now depend largely on word order and function words to convey the meanings that the older language did by means of changes in the forms of words. Function words, you should understand, are words such as prepositions, conjunctions, and a few others that are used primarily to show relationships among other words. A few inflections, however, have survived.
   And when some word inflections come into conflict with word order, there may be trouble for the users of the language, as we shall see later when we turn our attention to such matters as WHO or WHOM and ME or I. The second fact we must consider is that as language itself changes, our attitudes toward language forms change also. The eighteenth century, for example, produced from various sources a tendency to fix the language into patterns not always set in, which grew until at the present time there is a strong tendency to restudy and re-evaluate language practices in terms of the ways in which people speak and write.

6. 

Choose the appropriate meaning for the word "inflections" in Line 4 of Paragraph 2.

A Changes in the forms of words.

B Changes in sentence structures.

C Changes in spelling roles.

D Words that have similar meanings.

 

答案:A

词汇题。要根据上下文的信息判断单词的意思。文章在第二段中间再次提到“inflection”时说“A few inflectionshowever, have survived后面文章又举了“WHO/WHOM”“ME/I”为例说明“inflection”,从例子可以看出inflection的意思应该是单词的变形,选项A正确。

7. 

Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A It is generally believed that the year 1500 can be set as the beginnIng of the modem English language.

B Other languages had great influence on the English language at different stages of its development.

C The English language has beech and still in a state of relatively constant change.

D Many classes Or groups have contributed to the development of the English languag

 

答案:A

细节题。根据文章的内容,选项A“普遍认为1500年是现代英语的起点在文章中没有提及,故为正确答案。文章第二句说:“The history of our language has always been a history of constant change—at times a slow almost imperceptible changeat other times a violent collision between two languages”(我们语言的历史是一个不断变化的历史——有时缓慢得几乎难以察觉,在其他时候则是两种语言的激烈碰撞。)由此可以推断出其他的语言对英语的发展有重大影响,选项B符合文章的意思。CD两个选项本身为正确的说法,因此用排除法选出答案A

8. 

Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

A The History of the English Language

B Our Changing Attitude towards the English Language

C Our Changing Language

D Characteristics of Modem English

 

答案:C

主旨题。本文从各个方面谈及英语的发展变化,但并不是讲述英语的历史,所以选项A不对。选项B只是文章阐述的一个方面,不够全面。文章只在谈到英语的不断变化时提到了现代英语的一些特点,所以选项D过于片面。选项C作为文章的题目最为贴切。

9. 

In contrast to the earlier linguists, modem linguists tend to ______ .

A attempt to continue the standardization of the language

B evaluate language practices in terms of current speech rather than standards or proper patterns

C be more concerned about the improvement of the language than its analysis or history

D be more aware of the roles of the language usage

 

答案:B

细节题。根据题干回原文中定位,解题依据在文章末尾:“The eighteenth centuryfor exampleproduced from Various sources a tendency to fix the language into patterns not always set inwhich grew until at the present time there is a strong tendency to restudy and re-evaluate language practices in terms of the ways in which people speak and write”(现代语言学家倾向于根据人们说和写的方式重新研究评价语言实践,而不是像18世纪的语言学家根据一定的模式规定语言。)选项B符合文章的意思。

10. 

The author of these paragraphs is probably a(n) ______ .

A historian

B philosopher

C anthropologist

D linguist

 

答案:D

词汇题。此题考查考生的推测能力和词汇量,文章讲述的是英国语言演化的具体细节,最适当的答案应该是 D。作者很可能是一位语言学家。A意为历史学家C意为人类学家,具有迷惑性。B意为哲学家

Passage 3
   As regards social conventions, we must say a word about the well-known English class system. This is an embarrassing subject for English people, and one they tend to be ashamed of, though during the present century class- consciousness has decreased, and the class system less rigid. But it still exists below the surface. Broadly speaking, there are two classes, the middle class and the working class. ( We shall ignore for a moment the old "upper class", including the hereditary aristocracy, since it is extremely small in numbers; but some of its members have the right to sit in the House of Lords, and some newspapers take a surprising interest in their private life.) The middle class consists chiefly of well-to-do businessmen and professional people of all kinds. The working class consists chiefly of manual and unskilled workers.
   (79) The most obvious difference between them is In their accent. Middle-class people use slightly varying kinds of "received pronunciation" which is the kind of English spoken by BBC announcers and taught to overseas pupils. Typical working-class people speak in many different local accents which are generally felt to be rather ugly and uneducated. One of the biggest barriers to social equality in England is the two-class educational system. To have been to a so-called "public school" immediately marks one as of the middle class. The middle classes tend to live a more formal life than working class  people, and are usually more cultured. (80) Their midday meal is "lunch" and they have a rather formal evening meal called  "dinner" whereas the working man's dinner, if his working hours permit, is at midday, and his smaller, late-evening meal is called supper.
   As we have said, however, the class system is much less rigid than it was, and for a long time it has been government policy to reduce class distinctions. Working-class students very commonly receive a university education, and working- class incomes have grown so much recently that the distinctions between the two classes are becoming less and less clear. However, regardless of one's social status, certain standards of politeness are expected of everybody. A well-bred person is polite to everyone he meets, and treats a laborer with the same respect he gives an important businessman. Servility inspires both embarrassment and dislike. Even the word "sir", except in school and in certain occupations (e.g. commerce, the army) sounds too servile to be commonly used.

11. 

The middle class mainly refers to people ______ .

A who were born as aristocrat

B who have the right to sit in the House of Lords

C who speak in many different local accents

D who are prosperous businessmen or professionals

 

答案:D

细节题。选项D意为那些比较富裕的生意人或专业人士。第一段的倒数第二句说:“The middle class consists chiefly of well-to-do businessmen and professional people of all kinds”(中产阶级主要包括富裕的生意人和各种职业的人。)

12. 

Which of the following is NOT true about the English class system?

A It is an embarrassing subject for English people.

B Working-class students cannot receive a university education.

C The class system is much less rigid than it was.

D The class system still exists below the surfac

 

答案:B

细节题。见第三段第二句的前半句“Working-class students very commonly receive a university education”(来自工人阶级家庭的学生接受大学教育的情况已十分普遍。)选项B意为来自工人阶级家庭的学生不能接受大学教育

13. 

Why isn't the word "sir" commonly used in Britain?

A Because it sounds too servile and is likely to cause embarrassment.

B Because it can only be used in certain occupations.

C Because it is an impolite word.

D Because it shows that the speaker is not a well-bred person.

 

答案:A

推断题。见文章的最后两句  “Servility inspires both embarrassment and dislikeEven the word‘sir’except in school and in certain occupations (egcommercethe army)sounds too servile to be commonly used”(谦卑会引起尴尬和不悦。甚至像阁下这样的词,除了在特定的职业中(如商业、军队)外,也不太常用,因为它听起来太过谦卑。)选项A意为因为它听起来太过谦卑,很可能会引起尴尬

14. 

The upper class in England today ______ .

A are extremely small in number so that media pays no attention to them

B still uses old words like "sir" in everyday life

C includes the hereditary aristocracy

D refers only to the royal family

 

答案:C

细节题。A选项前半部分是对的,上流社会人数很少。后半部分是错的,媒体还在关注他们。B选项相关内容在文末。D没有提到。C在第一段中间出现,是正确答案。

15. 

The most obvious difference between the working class and the middle class in English is thek ______ .

A dress

B work

C accent

D meal

答案:C

细节题。第二段的第一句说:“The most obvious difference between them is in their accent”(他们之间最明显的区别是他们的口音。)

 

 

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